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ADVANCED WINEMAKING BASICS
Continued


Measuring Additives in Winemaking

Q: "Okay, once again, how many grams are in a teaspoon?"
A: "Okay, once again, it depends on the specific ingredient.



Grams, the Useful Measure

I received an email asking, "What equipment do I need most to advance from beginning winemaker to advanced?" Wow. Heavy question. I thought immediately of an acid titration test kit, a good, reliable pH meter, an SO2 "Ripper" test kit, and several other useful apparati, but in the end I wrote back with the following recommendation: "Get yourself an accurate, reliable gram scale."

I finally arrived at this bit of advice because, in the end, grams and milliliters are the measure of most additives and chemicals used in advanced winemaking, while teaspoons (and their fractions) and tablespoons are the measures used by the beginner. Having said that, I'll admit I still use teaspoons (and their fractions) every chance I get.

I have access to a frequently calibrated gram scale capable of measures down to the hundredth of a gram. At home, I have a small balance scale accurate to one-tenth of a gram. The former is great to own if you have money to burn or at least have access to if you live in the real world. The latter is sufficient for most measurements I need to make and at a fraction of the cost of the former.


Some Useful Measure Conversions

Chemical Tsp 1 Tsp 1 Tblsp
Acid blend, powder
Ascorbic acid, powder
Bentonite, agglomerated
Calcium carbonate, powder
Citric acid, powder
Diammonium phosphate, powder
Fermaid Yeast Nutrient, powder
Fumaric acid, powder
Gelatin, powder
Grape tannin, powder
Isinglass, powder
Malic acid, powder
Oak-Mor, special and premium
Oak-Mor, toasted
Polyclar V, powder
Polyclar VT, powder
Potassium bicabonate, powder
Potassium bitartrate, powder
Potassium caseinate, powder
Potassium metabisulfite, powder
Potassium sorbate, prilled
Sparkolloid, powder
Tartaric acid, powder
Yeast hulls, powder
Yeastex 61, powder

1.2 grams
0.9 grams
0.8 grams
0.5 grams
1.1 grams
1.2 grams
1.0 grams
1.3 grams
0.8 grams
0.6 grams
-
1.1 grams
-
-
-
-
0.7 grams
0.8 grams
0.7 grams
1.4 grams
0.6 grams
-
1.3 grams
0.6 grams
0.8 grams

5.1 grams
4.6 grams
3.4 grams
2.6 grams
4.9 grams
4.9 grams
4.6 grams
5.3 grams
3.2 grams
2.8 grams
2.4 grams
4.5 grams
1.2 grams
1.4 grams
1.3 grams
1.2 grams
3.3 grams
3.8 grams
3.0 grams
6.2 grams
2.5 grams
1.0 grams
5.0 grams
2.8 grams
3.3 grams

14.4 grams
13.8 grams
11.1 grams
06.7 grams
14.4 grams
14.7 grams
14.7 grams
16.0 grams
09.6 grams
07.8 grams
07.2 grams
13.2 grams
03.6 grams
04.2 grams
04.3 grams
03.9 grams
10.6 grams
10.2 grams
09.0 grams
20.0 grams
03.6 grams
07.5 grams
15.2 grams
08.7 grams
09.6 grams



Doses of Various Additives

Additive Dosage

Acid blend, powder
Antifoam, liquid AF-72
Bentonite, powder,
agglomerated
Calcium carbonate, powder
Citric acid, powder
Fumaric acid, powder
Gecoll Supra 95 liquid gelatin
Gelarom, liquid gelatin
Gelatin, powder 100 bloom
Glucolytic Enzyme AR2000,
powder
Isinglass, powder
Malic acid, powder
Polyclar V, powder

Polyclar VT, powder
Potassium bicarbonate,
powder
Potassium bitartrate, powder
NF
Potassium caseinate
(Kolorfine), powder
Potassium metabisulfite,
powder
Potassium sorbate, powder
or granular
Rapidase ExColor, powder
pectic enzyme
Rapidase Vino Super liquid
pectic enzyme
Rapidase Vino Super liquid
pectic enzyme
Sparkolloid, powder (hot
mix)
Tartaric acid, powder
Yeastex-61, powder yeast
nutrient
Yeast hulls (ghosts), powder



3.9 grams per gallon increases TA about 0.1%
5 to 8 drops per 5 gallons must before violent fermentation
1 to 2 grams per gallon after fermentation or 3 to 5 grams per gallon
before fermentation starts
2.5 grams per gallon must lowers TA about 0.1%
3.7 grams per gallon increases TA about 0.1%
1.5 to 5.7 grams per gallon (0.05 to 0.15% acid increase) to inhibit MLF
1.5 to 3.8 gallon to remove astringent tannins
1.1 to 2.2 mL per gallon for light, fruity wines
0.5 to 1.0 gram per gallon to soften astringent red wine
0.2 to 1.0 gram per 5 gallons must after fermentation to improve aroma
profile
0.015 to 0.07 gram per gallon white wine
3.7 grams per gallon increases TA about 0.1%
0.5 to 1.5 grams per gallon wine to whiten oxidized wine, 2 hours
before filtering
1 to 3 grams per gallon wine to whiten oxidized wine, no need to filter
3.4 grams per gallon must lowers TA about 0.1%, cold stabilize after
use
2 to 5 grams per gallon wine before cold stabilization

0.5 to 1.0 gram per gallon to whiten oxidized wine

see section below

1 to 1.25 grams per gallon wine with to 1 crushed Campden tablet

0.2 to 1.0 gram per 5 gallons must

1.5 to 3 drops per gallon grape must

3 to 6 drops per gallon high pectin fruit must

0.5 to 1.5 grams per gallon wine after fermentation

4.1 grams per gallon increases TA about 0.1%
0.5 to 1.0 grams per gallon must

0.45 to 0.9 grams per gallon must for MLF and to prevent sluggish
fermentation


Calculation of Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)

Potassium metabisulfite, 1 gram = 150 ppm in 1 gallon, 30 ppm in 5 gallons
Potassium metabisulfite, teaspoon = 225 ppm in 1 gallon, 45 ppm in 5 gallons
Potassium metabisulfite, 1 tablespoon to 1 gallon water makes % solution for washing equipment
Potassium metabisulfite, 2 oz. to 1 quart water makes 5% solution for sterilizing must (1 teaspoon solution per gallon of must)
1 Campden tablet contains 0.55 grams potassium metabisulfite, yielding 75 ppm SO2 to one gallon of must or wine


Also see Conversions and Equivalents




Last update was June 15th, 2001.


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